Already in 1974, Henri Lefebvre asserted how “leisure is as alienated and alienating as labour; as much an agent of co-optation as it is itself co-opted. […] Once a conquest of the working class, in the shape of paid days’ off, holidays, weekends, and so on, leisure has been transformed into an industry, into a victory of neocapitalism and an extension of bourgeois hegemony to the whole space.”
The “bourgeois hegemony” over spaces of leisure that Lefebvre reproaches is truly unrelated to the type of socio-political settings of a particular context, be it socialist or capitalist. However, making any two cases commensurable for the purposes of evaluation is never ideologically neutral, and histories of post-socialist development in Central and Eastern Europe often run the risk of an inherent exoticism. Socialism can indeed seem as a valid common denominator that offers a meaningful frame to discuss and compare specific building cultures; it can perform as an appropriate expedient of comparison but only if it simultaneously questions the rootedness of its own discourse. Continue reading
While being the first of its kind, the volume edited by Elke Beyer, Anke Hagemann and Michael Zinganel, Holidays after the Fall: Seaside Architecture and Urbanism in Bulgaria and Croatia (Berlin: Jovis, 2013) is also a long-awaited publication. Indeed, seaside architecture and urbanism in the former communist bloc have stirred attention and debates in recent years (there have been a few papers presented at various conferences and Michael Zinganel chaired a session on this subject at the 2nd EAHN Conference in Brussels, 2012), but this is the first time that a book is dedicated to the topic. This is an additional reason to welcome Holidays after the Fall as a much needed expansion of the historiographical field on Eastern European architecture.
Conceived in an almost symmetrical structure – a general introduction looking at the seaside architecture from a brief historic perspective (targeting mainly the interwar years) and two sections, each treating one of the two case studies – the book offers the reader a complex framework for understanding its topic. This complexity is the result of a cross-reading on multiple levels. The first level is the geographic one, based on an intelligent choice – Bulgaria and Croatia (as part of the former Yugoslavia): “orthodox” state-socialism versus non-alignment and the “third way”; the closest satellite to the Soviet-Union versus the closest socialist country to the Western world and to capitalism. (Focusing on Croatia, as the inheritor of most of the Adriatic coast, pushes this striking parallel further, since, historically speaking, the region was the closest to Western thinking and production before 1945 within the entire Kingdom of Yugoslavia.) Continue reading
Holidays after the Fall: Seaside Architecture and Urbanism in Bulgaria and Croatia explores the transition from socialist modernism in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s to recent “boom and bust” tourism development in capitalist Bulgaria and Croatia. The “remarkable [socialist] showcases of modern architecture and equally state-of the-art urban concepts” (30) are not the standardized, grey architecture high rises of the capitalist imagination, but a diverse range of creative forms ranging from hotel towers, to Bulgarian low-rise hotels modeled on traditional monasteries, to the terraced village-like complexes of the Adriatic. Post-socialist tourism, in contrast, has meant speculative property development, corrupt politics and zoning, and profound environmental degradation. The contributors to this edited volume are attentive to the physical restructuring of resorts and hotels over the period, and to economic and political changes including “revised models of mass tourism and the passage of ownership, investment and management into the hands of the respective countries’ new elites.” (32). The first half of the book explores the history and post-socialist restructuring of Bulgaria, the second Croatia. The subtleties and specificities of socialist and post-socialist holiday spaces are revealed in the comparison (if often implicit rather than explicit) between these two countries, which share a socialist past and a capitalist present, but a different future in that Croatia’s natural resources are still largely intact. Holidays after the Fall is appropriately and usefully interdisciplinary with contributions from specialists in urban planning, architecture, history, and German and Dutch studies. In addition to lavishly illustrated chapters—one of the deep pleasures of this volume are the magnificent images—the volume is bookended by color photographs of Croatian hotel architecture in the 1970s and Bulgarian coast resorts in 2012, the later as photographed by Nikola Mihov. Continue reading
We’re pleased to announce the start of our next book discussion, which will be on Holidays after the Fall: Seaside Architecture and Urbanism in Bulgaria and Croatia, edited by Elke Beyer, Anke Hagemann and Michael Zinganel (Berlin: Jovis, 2013). This volume is a remarkable example of interdisciplinary comparative inquiry into the history of modern and modernist spaces of leisure and joy in Bulgaria and Croatia. The major focus of the book is on the transformation of the built infrastructure of seaside tourism, understood as “a genuinely modern phenomenon” (35), from the 1950s to the present. Looking at the truly transnational experience of seaside holidays as well as the unequivocally international typology of seaside architecture, the volume poses a series of important questions about the nature of state socialism and market economy, the similarities between East and West, and the heterogeneity of the Second World itself.
Haludovo Hotel Palace. Photo: Daniele Ansidei 2012. Croatia
Contrary to the enduring emphasis on fundamental differences between East and West in the scholarly literature, the editors bring to our attention the striking similarities between spaces of leisure conceived in different economic and political settings. What do these similarities mean? The editors argue that the governments of both political blocs were surprisingly flexible and eager to learn from their Cold War rivals. At the same time, the citizens of both blocs also shared a common (universal?) desire of “getting away from it all” (53) that resulted in rather comparable cultural practices and holidays routines. All these forces at play contributed to the production of heterotopia that exhibited similar features. This insight into similarities of leisure spaces and practices across the East-West divide allows us to blur even further the boundary between the First and the Second Worlds and to show how mutually constitutive or transnationally constituted both political blocs were. But this also means that the political boundary that separated these worlds needs to be further historicized and problematized. How do we tackle the contradiction between palpable Cold War tensions and striking similarities on both sides of the Iron Curtain? How do we understand the political rhetoric of global difference in the times of intense globalisation and standardisation of the built environment and everyday practices?
Holidays after the Fall, by no means, suggests that the world was simply becoming more and more uniform. On the contrary, the editors and the contributors alike are very attentive to differences. Selecting Croatia and Bulgaria as two case studies, the editors bring the complex diversity within the Second World to the fore. This comparison raises questions about the potentialities of the Second World. It pushes us to further investigate the multitude of possibilities entailed in the project of building socialism as a global alternative to capitalism, and encourages us to study both roads taken and abandoned at the time (as well as some unexpected turns, such as the history of the Haludovo resort pictured above). By tracing the fate of socialist infrastructure beyond 1989, the volume also attempts to grasp the difference between the realities of state socialism and radical marketization in the Bulgarian case and incomplete privatization in the Croatian case. Again, how do we understand these sharp contrasts between different kinds of state socialism? What does the history of transition to the new world order where market economy is essentially viewed as the only possible modus operandi tell us about the specificity of the Second World political economy and the codex of the planning profession?
To continue our discussion of Holidays after the Fall, we have invited Anne Gorsuch (University of British Columbia), Carmen Popescu (Université Paris 1 – Panthéon-Sorbonne), and Igor Ekštajn (GSD, Harvard University) to share their questions and observations. The editors Elke Beyer (ETH Zurich/IRS Erkner) and Michael Zinganel will also contribute to this discussion. And readers of our blog are welcome to post comments on this or other posts.
The Housing Question
Nomad Seminar – San Diego
University of San Diego
March 12-13, 2015
March 12, 2015 at 6:30pm
Reinhold Martin, Associate Professor, GSAPP, Columbia University, and Director, Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture
Call for Papers
More than 140 years after Engels polemically linked urban dwelling and political project, what has become of the housing question? In the last decade, housing has been the object of intense and wide-ranging attention, but discussion has mostly narrowed down to its role within national and international economies. In this perspective, housing is but an asset subjected to the mechanisms of consumption, investment, and finance, bobbing up and down the waves, bubbles, and crashes of global capitalism. This has not always been the case. Since the 19th-century outcry over the living conditions of the working class, housing has had a long and meaningful history as the sphere in which progressive reform has been imagined, debated, and implemented, and where social values, political projects, and new forms of collectivity could be tested and shaped. Continue reading
ALTERNATIVE ENCOUNTERS: THE “SECOND WORLD” AND THE “GLOBAL SOUTH”, 1945-1991
Location: Imre Kertész Kolleg, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena
3–4 NOVEMBER 2014
***A collaboration between the Imre Kertész Kolleg, Friedrich Schiller University Jena; the Centre for Area Studies, University of Leipzig; and the Centre of Imperial & Global History, University of Exeter. Supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung and Friedrich Schiller University Jena*** Continue reading
The Black Sea in the Socialist World
Birkbeck College, University of London
February 6-7, 2015
Sponsored by the Society for the Social History of Medicine and the British Association for Slavonic and East European Studies
Call for Papers
In May 1962, shortly before the Cuban Missile Crisis, Soviet premiere Nikita Khrushchev toured Bulgaria. Under banners declaring “Forward, to Communism!” at a mass meeting in Varna, a Bulgarian health resort, Khrushchev lauded the Bulgarian people for the way in which they had developed the Black Sea coastline. Model health resorts like Varna, which drew visitors from all over the world, were the pride of the Bulgarian people, he claimed. Continue reading
Epistemologies of In-Betweenness: East Central Europe and the World History of Social Science, 1890-1945
Institut für Ost- und Südeuropaforschung Regensburg
29-30 May, 2015
Call for Papers
Convenors: Katherine Lebow, Vienna Wiesenthal Institute for Holocaust Research; Małgorzata Mazurek, Department of History, Columbia University; Joanna Wawrzyniak, Institute of Sociology, Warsaw University; Ulf Brunnbauer, Institut für Ost- und Südeuropaforschung Regensburg/Universität Regensburg
The period ca. 1890-1945 saw both the crystallization of modern social scientific disciplines and some of the most profound crises of the social, political, and economic systems they were devised to study. This workshop asks how intellectuals’ sustained engagement with these crises in the “shatterzones” of East Central Europe shaped the development of social science between the end of the nineteenth century and the onset of the Cold War. Continue reading
See the call for papers attached below for the conference, “Cities of a New Type: New Industrial Cities in Popular Democracies after 1945,” to be held in Dunaújváros, May 21-22, 2015. The conference will explore the transnational history of new socialist cities in East Europe following World War II.
CFP Dunaujvaros (21-22.5.2015)
Many, many thanks to Steve Harris and Daria Bocharnikova for creating such an excellent blog and for inviting me to participate in it; likewise to Ari Sammartino, Sofia Dyak, Kim Zarecor and Łukasz Stanek for their deep and thought-provoking readings of my book.
In my response, I’ll focus on two clusters of themes that seemed to pop up across the contributions. These are questions, broadly, about the book’s title (unfinished/utopia); and about what I’ll call comparisons, contexts, and interconnections. Continue reading